Friday, 27 July 2012


Flowy XB  -
Vedic mathematics is a system of mathematics consisting of a list of 16 basic sūtras, or aphorisms. They were presented by a Hindu scholar and mathematician, Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja, during the early part of the 20th century.[1]
Tirthaji claimed that he found the sūtras after years of studying the Vedas, a set of sacred ancient Hindu texts.[2] However, Vedas do not contain any of the "Vedic mathematics" sutras.[3][4]
The calculation strategies provided by Vedic mathematics are said to be creative and useful, and can be applied in a number of ways to calculation methods in arithmetic and algebra, most notably within the education system. Some of its methods share similarities with the Trachtenberg system.
The sūtras (formulae or aphorisms)
Vedic mathematics is based on sixteen sūtras which serve as somewhat cryptic instructions for dealing with different mathematical problems. Below is a list of the sūtras, translated from Sanskrit into English:
§  "By one more than the previous one" 
§  "All from 9 and the last from 10
§  "Vertically and crosswise (multiplications)
§  "Transpose and apply"
§  "Transpose and adjust (the coefficient)"
§  "If the Samuccaya is the same (on both sides of the equation, then) that Samuccaya is (equal to) zero"
§  By the Parāvartya rule
§  "If one is in ratio, the other one is zero." 
§  "By addition and by subtraction."
§  By the completion or non-completion (of the square, the cube, the fourth power, etc.)
§  Differential calculus 
§  By the deficiency
§  Specific and general
§  The remainders by the last digit
§  "The ultimate (binomial) and twice the penultimate (binomial) (equals zero),"
§  "Only the last terms,"
§  By one less than the one before
§  The product of the sum
§  All the multipliers

Subsūtras or corollars
§  "Proportionately"
§  The remainder remains constant
§  "The first by the first and the last by the last"
§  For 7 the multiplicand is 143
§  By osculation
§  Lessen by the deficiency
§  "Whatever the extent of its deficiency, lessen it still further to that very extent; and also set up the square (of the deficiency)".
§  "By one more than the previous one"
§  "Last totaling ten"
§  The sum of the products
§  "By (alternative) elimination and retention (of the highest and lowest powers)"
§  By mere observation,
§  The product of the sum is the sum of the products
§  On the flag

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