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*Flowy XB -*

*Vedic mathematics**is a system of**mathematics**consisting of a list of 16 basic**sūtras**, or**aphorisms**. They were presented by a Hindu scholar and mathematician,**Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja**, during the early part of the 20th century.*^{[1]}

*Tirthaji claimed that he found the sūtras after years of studying the**Vedas**, a set of sacred ancient Hindu texts.*^{[2]}*However, Vedas do not contain any of the "Vedic mathematics" sutras.*^{[3]}^{[4]}

*The calculation strategies provided by Vedic mathematics are said to be creative and useful, and can be applied in a number of ways to calculation methods in arithmetic and algebra, most notably within the education system. Some of its methods share similarities with the**Trachtenberg system**.*

*The sūtras (formulae or aphorisms)*

*Vedic mathematics is based on sixteen sūtras which serve as somewhat cryptic instructions for dealing with different mathematical problems. Below is a list of the sūtras, translated from Sanskrit into English:***§**

*"By one more than the previous one"***§**

*"All from 9 and the last from 10***§**

*"Vertically and crosswise (multiplications)***§**

*"Transpose and apply"***§**

*"Transpose and adjust (the coefficient)"***§**

*"If the Samuccaya is the same (on both sides of the equation, then) that Samuccaya is (equal to) zero"***§**

*By the Parāvartya rule***§**

*"If one is in ratio, the other one is zero."***§**

*"By addition and by subtraction."***§**

*By the completion or non-completion (of the square, the cube, the fourth power, etc.)***§**

*Differential calculus***§**

*By the deficiency***§**

*Specific and general***§**

*The remainders by the last digit***§**

*"The ultimate (binomial) and twice the penultimate (binomial) (equals zero),"***§**

*"Only the last terms,"***§**

*By one less than the one before***§**

*The product of the sum***§**

*All the**multipliers*

__Subsūtras or corollars__**§**

*"Proportionately"***§**

*The remainder remains constant***§**

*"The first by the first and the last by the last"***§**

*For 7 the multiplicand is 143***§**

*By osculation***§**

*Lessen by the deficiency***§**

*"Whatever the extent of its deficiency, lessen it still further to that very extent; and also set up the square (of the deficiency)".***§**

*"By one more than the previous one"***§**

*"Last totaling ten"***§**

*The sum of the products***§**

*"By (alternative) elimination and retention (of the highest and lowest powers)"***§**

*By mere observation,***§**

*The product of the sum is the sum of the products***§**

*On the flag*

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